Is The Downy Woodpecker Endangered

Last Updated on May 12, 2023 by naime

Hey there! As a wildlife conservationist, I’m always concerned about the status of different species. Today, we’re going to talk about one particular bird that has been on many people’s minds – the downy woodpecker.

The downy woodpecker is a small but striking bird known for its distinctive black and white plumage and adorable size. However, despite being commonly seen in North America, some have begun to worry about whether or not this beautiful bird is endangered. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the current state of the downy woodpecker population, explore potential threats to their survival, and discuss what can be done to protect them from further decline. So let’s dive right in!

Introduction To The Downy Woodpecker

Bird watching enthusiasts and conservationists alike will be delighted to know more about the charming Downy Woodpecker. As one of the smallest woodpeckers in North America, this feathered friend has a distinctive black-and-white pattern on its wings and back, with a striking red patch on top of its head. Often found in wooded areas or parks, it is known for its drumming sounds that can be heard from afar.

The Downy Woodpecker is a fascinating bird species to study due to their unique behaviors that make them stand out from other avian creatures. Their long tongues allow them to reach deep into tree crevices in search of insects or sap. They also have strong bills that enable them to drill holes in trees where they can store food during harsh winter months. Despite being small in size, they are mighty hunters as well – preying on ants, spiders, caterpillars and many other insects.

While there is no doubt that the Downy Woodpecker plays an important role in maintaining ecosystem balance by controlling insect populations, questions arise regarding their conservation status. Although not currently listed as endangered or threatened, these birds still face challenges such as habitat loss due to deforestation and climate change. Wildlife biologists continue to monitor population trends and work towards measures that ensure the protection of this delightful little creature’s future.

As we learn more about the Downy Woodpecker’s ecology and behavior patterns, we gain insight into how interconnected our world really is. The preservation of natural habitats benefits all living organisms including humans who depend on diverse ecosystems for survival. It is our responsibility as stewards of nature to conserve wildlife like the Downy Woodpecker so future generations may enjoy observing their beauty and marvel at their resilience amidst changing environmental conditions.

Physical Characteristics Of The Downy Woodpecker

The Downy Woodpecker is a small bird that measures around 6-7 inches in length and weighs about an ounce. It has black and white feathers with distinct markings on its wings, back, and tail. Its bill is short but strong, allowing it to peck at trees to find insects for food.

The male Downy Woodpecker has a red patch on the back of its head while the female does not. The juveniles have a similar appearance as adults but their colors are less defined. They also lack the distinctive red patch on their heads until they reach adulthood.

One unique physical characteristic of the Downy Woodpecker is its stiff tail feathers which act as support when climbing vertical surfaces like tree trunks or branches. Additionally, this woodpecker’s tongue can extend up to two inches beyond its beak, making it easier to extract prey from narrow crevices where insects may hide.

Overall, the Downy Woodpecker’s physical characteristics make it well adapted for life in wooded areas where they thrive. Understanding these traits helps us appreciate how remarkable this species truly is and why we must continue working towards conservation efforts to ensure their survival in our ecosystems.

Range And Habitat Of The Downy Woodpecker

Did you know that the downy woodpecker is one of the most common and widespread woodpeckers in North America? Their range spans from Alaska to Florida, covering almost all of Canada and the United States. These birds prefer deciduous forests and wooded areas with scattered trees, but can also be found in suburban parks and gardens.

The downy woodpecker’s habitat requirements are specific, as they rely on dead or dying trees for nesting cavities and foraging opportunities. Unfortunately, deforestation and urbanization have significantly reduced their natural habitat. This has led to a decline in their population numbers in some areas. However, these resilient birds have adapted to living near humans by utilizing bird feeders and nest boxes.

As wildlife conservationists, it’s important to continue monitoring the population trends of the downy woodpecker. By understanding their range and habitat preferences, we can work towards preserving suitable habitats for them to thrive. Encouraging homeowners to maintain dead trees within their property or installing nest boxes can provide additional nesting sites for this species.

By taking small steps towards protecting our environment, we can ensure that future generations will be able to enjoy the beauty of these charismatic little birds. The downy woodpecker serves as an indicator species for overall forest health – if they’re doing well, it means other woodland creatures likely are too. We must strive to protect not only individual species like the downy woodpecker but also entire ecosystems before it is too late.

Diet And Feeding Habits Of The Downy Woodpecker

After discussing the range and habitat of the downy woodpecker, it’s important to understand their diet and feeding habits. These small birds primarily feed on insects and larvae found in trees, using their strong bills to drill into bark or wood to access their prey. They also consume fruits, seeds, and sap during certain times of the year.

Interestingly, male and female downy woodpeckers have slightly different diets. Females tend to focus more on insects while males incorporate a larger variety of food sources into their diet. Additionally, these birds are known for caching food items by hiding them in crevices or under loose bark for later consumption.

The feeding habits of downy woodpeckers play an important role in maintaining forest ecosystems. By consuming insects that can harm trees, they help protect forests from damage caused by pests. Their drilling behavior also creates nesting sites for other bird species and helps aerate soil by breaking up dead branches.

Overall, understanding the diet and feeding habits of the downy woodpecker is crucial for conservation efforts aimed at protecting this species and its ecosystem. By preserving suitable habitats with healthy tree populations, we can ensure that these birds continue to thrive and contribute to ecological balance without being endangered.

Breeding And Reproduction Of The Downy Woodpecker

The breeding and reproduction of the Downy Woodpecker is an incredibly fascinating topic. It’s a delicate dance between two individuals, full of intricate movements and behaviors that ensure the survival of their species. Imagine a beautiful ballet, where each step is carefully choreographed to create new life.

During breeding season, male Downy Woodpeckers will often drum on dead trees or other surfaces as a way to attract females. Once they find a mate, these birds build nests together in tree cavities using materials like grasses and bark fibers. The female lays 4-5 white eggs which both parents take turns incubating for around 12 days.

Once hatched, the baby woodpeckers are completely dependent on their parents for food and protection. They grow quickly though, reaching adult size within just a few weeks. As they mature, young downy woodpeckers learn essential skills from their parents such as how to communicate with others of their kind and how to search for insects in trees.

It’s important we do what we can to protect this incredible species so future generations can witness the beauty of their breeding rituals firsthand. To help you understand why it’s vital we preserve these amazing creatures, here are three facts about Downy Woodpeckers:

  • These birds play an essential role in controlling insect populations by eating harmful pests like termites.
  • Their unique drumming behavior helps them establish territories and attract mates during breeding season.
  • Despite being relatively small (around six inches long), Downy Woodpeckers have very strong beaks that allow them to drill into trees with ease.

Let us all work together to conserve these stunning birds so that they may continue performing their elegant dances in our forests for many years to come.

Current Population Status Of The Downy Woodpecker

The Downy Woodpecker has a wide range throughout North America, with habitats ranging from woodlands, orchards, and backyards. Unfortunately, its population has been declining in recent years due to urbanization and deforestation. To combat this, conservation efforts have included habitat protection, re-forestation, and legislation to prevent the destruction of its natural habitats. Additionally, educational programs have been implemented to inform people of the importance of the Downy Woodpecker and other birds in the environment. We must all take action to ensure the future of this species and its population.

Range & Habitat

If you’re a nature lover, imagine waking up one morning to the sound of drumming in your backyard. You look out the window and see a vibrant bird with black-and-white feathers pecking at a tree trunk – this is none other than the downy woodpecker! Unfortunately, due to habitat loss and degradation, not everyone gets to witness this iconic species in their own backyard.

The downy woodpecker’s range includes most of North America, from southern Alaska to Central America, making it one of the continent’s most widely distributed birds. However, its preferred habitats are mature deciduous forests or mixed forests with plenty of deadwood for nesting cavities. As human development continues to fragment these forested areas, many populations have been isolated and unable to disperse.

Although downy woodpeckers can adapt to living in parks and residential neighborhoods that mimic natural environments, they still need trees as their primary source of food and shelter. Deforestation has severely impacted their population status by reducing both available nesting sites and foraging opportunities.

It is crucial that we prioritize conservation efforts aimed at preserving mature forests and protecting them from further fragmentation. In addition, creating artificial nest boxes can provide alternative breeding sites where natural cavities may be lacking. By taking action now, we can help ensure that future generations will continue to enjoy the sight of these charismatic birds thriving in their natural habitats.

See also  Female Downy Woodpecker

Population Decline

As a wildlife conservationist, it is important to assess the current population status of the downy woodpecker. Unfortunately, this species has experienced a decline in numbers due to various anthropogenic factors. Habitat loss and degradation have severely impacted their breeding success and survival rates.

The fragmentation of forested areas has limited the availability of suitable nesting sites for these birds. As a result, many populations have become isolated and unable to disperse. In addition, deforestation has reduced access to primary sources of food and shelter for downy woodpeckers, which can lead to decreased reproductive success and increased mortality rates.

To address this issue, we must prioritize conservation efforts that aim at preserving mature forests and protecting them from further fragmentation. It is crucial that we take action now before more damage is done to their habitats. Additionally, creating artificial nest boxes can provide alternative breeding sites where natural cavities may be lacking.

In conclusion, the current population status of the downy woodpecker highlights how critical it is for us as humans to consider our impact on wildlife. By working together towards habitat preservation and restoration efforts, we can help ensure that future generations will continue to enjoy the sight of these charismatic birds thriving in their natural environments.

Conservation Efforts

As a wildlife conservationist, it is imperative to recognize the significance of implementing effective conservation efforts for threatened species like the downy woodpecker. To prevent further declines in their population status, we must take action to preserve and restore their habitats.

One way to achieve this goal is by increasing public awareness about the importance of mature forests as critical habitat for these birds. Educating communities on how fragmentation and deforestation can impact local bird populations may motivate them to support conservation initiatives that promote forest restoration.

Another important approach is creating artificial nesting sites or nest boxes for downy woodpeckers. These structures can provide vital breeding locations where natural cavities are lacking due to habitat degradation. By placing nest boxes in suitable areas, such as near existing forests with sufficient food resources, we can help increase the chances of successful reproduction and survival rates.

Finally, collaboration among different organizations and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is essential for long-term success. Through joint planning and implementation of strategies targeting various aspects of downy woodpecker preservation, including habitat protection and restoration, predator control programs, and monitoring efforts towards population trends – we can ensure that this charismatic bird continues thriving in its native environment for generations to come.

Threats To The Downy Woodpecker’s Survival

The downy woodpecker, while not currently endangered, is facing several threats that could lead to its decline. One of these threats is habitat loss due to deforestation and urbanization. As more forests are cleared for development and agriculture, the woodpeckers lose their nesting sites and food sources.

Another threat comes from invasive species such as European starlings and house sparrows. These birds compete with the downy woodpecker for nesting cavities, which can limit the availability of suitable homes for the woodpeckers. Additionally, some invasive plant species like garlic mustard or honeysuckle can reduce the number of insects available for the woodpeckers to eat.

Climate change may also pose a risk to the survival of downy woodpeckers. Changes in temperature patterns and weather extremes could affect insect populations or make it difficult for the birds to find food during certain seasons. In addition, changing forest composition may alter the availability of preferred tree species for nesting sites.

Conservation efforts aimed at protecting forests from development, removing invasive species, and monitoring climate changes can help ensure that downy woodpeckers continue to thrive in North America. By addressing these threats head-on, we can work towards a future where this beloved bird remains a common sight in our backyards and local parks.

Habitat Loss And Fragmentation

Habitat Loss and Fragmentation has been a major issue for many species of birds, including the downy woodpecker. These small birds rely on specific habitats to find food and nesting sites, but with increased development and human activity, their homes are being destroyed or disrupted.

One factor contributing to habitat loss is deforestation. As trees are cut down for lumber or cleared for agriculture, the natural habitats of downy woodpeckers disappear. Additionally, urbanization leads to fragmentation of forests into smaller patches that may not provide enough resources for these birds.

Another problem is invasive species. Non-native plants can outcompete native vegetation in areas where downy woodpeckers live, reducing the availability of food sources like insects or fruits. Invasive predators such as feral cats also pose a threat by preying on young birds.

Climate change is yet another challenge facing the downy woodpecker’s habitat. With warming temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns, some forests may become unsuitable for this bird species over time.

To help mitigate these threats to the downy woodpecker’s survival, conservation biologists suggest several strategies:

  • Creating protected areas where forest fragments can be conserved
  • Planting native vegetation to restore degraded habitats
  • Monitoring populations and studying how they respond to changing environmental conditions

By taking proactive measures now we can ensure that future generations will continue to enjoy seeing these beautiful birds in nature without endangering them further.

Climate Change And Its Effects On The Downy Woodpecker

Climate change is a serious threat to biodiversity, including the downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens). This species of woodpecker is widespread across North America and has adapted to various habitats. However, rising global temperatures have had significant impacts on their survival.

One of the most significant effects of climate change on downy woodpeckers is habitat loss. These birds rely on trees for nesting sites and food sources, but as temperatures rise, forests are becoming drier and more susceptible to insect infestations and wildfires. This results in fewer trees available for woodpeckers to use as homes or sources of food.

Another way that climate change affects downy woodpeckers is by altering their migratory patterns. As temperatures rise, some populations may shift northward to find suitable breeding grounds while others could become trapped in areas where they cannot survive due to lack of resources like food or water.

Furthermore, changes in weather patterns can affect the availability of insects that these birds feed on. Warmer winters mean that insects may emerge earlier than usual or not at all, which would leave downy woodpeckers without a vital source of nutrition during critical times, such as when raising young.

To summarize how climate change is affecting this bird species we created the following table:

Climate Change Impact Description
Habitat Loss Due to increasing droughts and forest fires there are less optimal nesting locations for this species
Migratory Patterns Changing temperature patterns impact migration routes; forcing some population shifts northwards leaving others stranded with limited resources
Insect Availability Changes in weather conditions affect insect emergence periods causing reduced access to vital nutritional resources

In light of these observations, it’s clear that immediate action must be taken to mitigate the risks posed by climate change before it’s too late. We must prioritize conservation efforts that address the root causes of these problems and work towards finding sustainable solutions to protect this beloved bird species.

Competition With Other Species

As a wildlife conservationist, I have observed the downy woodpecker for many years. One of the factors that affect their survival is competition with other species. Imagine walking through a forest and hearing different bird calls all around you. Each one represents a unique species trying to thrive in the same environment.

In this competitive world, some birds have developed strategies to outcompete others for resources such as food and nesting sites. The hairy woodpecker is one such competitor of the downy woodpecker. They both share similar habitats and diets, but the hairy woodpecker is larger and more aggressive, often taking over nests previously used by downy woodpeckers.

Another competitor is the European starling, an invasive species that has spread throughout North America. Starlings are known to displace native bird species from their nesting cavities, including those used by downy woodpeckers. In addition, they consume large amounts of insects that would otherwise be available for the downy woodpecker to feed on.

A third competitor is humans who alter natural habitats through urbanization or deforestation. These activities reduce suitable nesting sites for downy woodpeckers while also decreasing insect populations – a critical food source for these birds. As biologists, we must continue to monitor these impacts and strive towards finding solutions to mitigate them so that our feathered friends like the downy woodpecker can thrive in their natural homes without being threatened by external forces.

By understanding how competition affects the downy woodpecker’s habitat and diet, we can work towards preserving their population while maintaining healthy ecosystems at large. It is imperative that we take action now before it’s too late to save these magnificent creatures from extinction.

Pesticides And Other Contaminants

Pesticides and other contaminants pose a significant threat to the survival of many bird species, including the downy woodpecker. These toxic substances can enter their food chain through various means, such as contaminated water or insects that have been exposed to pesticides.

Studies have shown that exposure to pesticides has led to decreased reproductive success in birds, which ultimately impacts population growth. Additionally, some pesticides may also weaken the immune systems of birds, making them more susceptible to diseases and infections.

Other types of contaminants like heavy metals and PCBs can accumulate in tissues over time and cause long-term health problems for birds. Exposure to these toxins can lead to abnormal behavior, reduced fertility rates, and even death.

As wildlife conservationists and biologists, it is our responsibility to advocate for stricter regulations on pesticide use and proper disposal of hazardous waste materials. By reducing our impact on the environment and promoting sustainable practices, we can help ensure the continued survival of not only the downy woodpecker but all wildlife species that are essential for maintaining healthy ecosystems.

Conservation Efforts For The Downy Woodpecker

As we have seen in the previous section, pesticides and other contaminants pose a serious threat to many species of birds. However, is the downy woodpecker endangered due to these factors? The answer is no – this bird is still widely distributed across North America.

See also  What Does A Female Downy Woodpecker Look Like

That being said, there are certainly conservation concerns for the downy woodpecker. Habitat loss is one such concern; as humans continue to encroach upon natural areas, suitable nesting sites for these birds become scarcer. Additionally, climate change may shift the distribution of forests and affect food availability for the downy woodpecker.

Despite these challenges, there are efforts underway to conserve this beloved bird species. One important aspect of conservation involves monitoring populations through citizen science projects like eBird. By tracking where and when downy woodpeckers are spotted, researchers can gain valuable insights into their ecology and behavior.

Another key strategy for conserving downy woodpeckers involves habitat restoration and management. This might include planting native trees or shrubs that provide good nesting cavities, removing invasive plant species that crowd out preferred vegetation types, or even using prescribed burns to maintain healthy forest ecosystems.

Overall, while the downy woodpecker isn’t currently at risk of extinction, it’s important to remain vigilant about potential threats to its survival. Through ongoing research and conservation actions aimed at protecting this charismatic bird, we can help ensure that future generations will be able to enjoy its unique beauty and fascinating behaviors in our forests and backyards alike.

Habitat Protection And Restoration

Habitat destruction is one of the main reasons for the decline in downy woodpecker populations. Therefore, habitat protection and restoration are crucial to ensure their survival. One way to protect their habitat is by designating areas as protected reserves or parks where logging and other destructive activities are prohibited.

Restoration efforts can focus on planting native tree species that provide nesting sites and food sources for downy woodpeckers. Additionally, creating deadwood structures such as snags and logs can also provide important habitats for these birds. Deadwood structures serve as vital microhabitats for various organisms including insects which make up a significant portion of the downy woodpecker diet.

It’s essential to recognize that protecting and restoring habitats benefits not just the downy woodpecker but many other species as well. These conservation efforts promote biodiversity, maintain ecosystem function, and ultimately benefit human communities too. By conserving habitats, we safeguard our natural resources while preserving our cultural heritage.

In summary, protecting and restoring habitats is critical to sustain downy woodpecker populations. We must prioritize this work through policy changes, public education campaigns, and collaboration with local communities. Only by doing so will we secure a better future for both wildlife and people alike.

Public Education And Awareness

As a wildlife conservationist and biologist, I believe that public education and awareness are crucial in protecting endangered species like the downy woodpecker. By educating the public about this bird’s habitat, behavior, and ecological importance, we can raise awareness of their plight and promote conservation efforts.

One way to increase public education is through community outreach programs. These programs could include educational workshops at local schools or informational booths at farmers’ markets and other community events. Additionally, social media campaigns can be used to share facts about the downy woodpecker with a wider audience.

Another important aspect of public education is promoting responsible behaviors around these birds. This includes avoiding activities such as logging or development that may destroy their natural habitats. It also means taking measures to prevent collisions between birds and vehicles by reducing speed on roads near wooded areas.

By increasing public awareness of the downy woodpecker’s predicament, we can help protect this beautiful bird for future generations to enjoy. However, it will take a collective effort from individuals, communities, and governments to ensure its survival. So let us all do our part by spreading knowledge about this incredible creature and working towards its protection.


Habitat Behavior
Forests Drumming on trees for communication
Wooded Areas Eating insects found under bark
Nesting cavities in dead trees Mating calls during breeding season

In summary, public education plays an essential role in saving endangered species like the downy woodpecker. Through community outreach programs, social media campaigns, and responsible behavior practices, we can create a society that values conservation efforts over destructive ones. Let us work together towards restoring balance to nature while preserving these magnificent creatures for future generations!

Conclusion: The Future Of The Downy Woodpecker

As much as we try to educate the public about the importance of conserving wildlife, it seems that there are still those who don’t fully grasp the gravity of the situation. Take for instance, the downy woodpecker – a bird so small and unassuming yet critical in maintaining balance in our ecosystem. Despite being one of the most common woodpeckers found in North America, its survival is threatened by habitat loss and degradation.

As a conservationist/biologist, I cannot stress enough how vital these birds are to our environment. Downy woodpeckers play a crucial role in controlling insect populations which, if left unchecked, could cause widespread devastation to crops and forests alike. They also serve as an indicator species for forest health, meaning their presence or absence can indicate potential problems within an ecosystem.

Sadly, despite these important roles they play, downy woodpeckers continue to face numerous threats. Deforestation and urbanization have led to significant declines in suitable habitats while pesticide use has poisoned their food sources. Climate change too poses new challenges such as shifting migration patterns and changes in breeding seasons.

The future of the downy woodpecker may seem bleak but it’s not all doom and gloom. Through collective efforts towards sustainable forestry practices and improved land-use planning coupled with increased awareness from the general public on preserving natural habitats, we can ensure that this resilient little bird continues to thrive for generations to come.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Is The Lifespan Of A Downy Woodpecker?

The downy woodpecker is a small but mighty bird that can be found across North America. As for their lifespan, these birds typically live up to 6-7 years in the wild. However, some have been known to survive up to 11 years! It’s important to note that several factors can impact their longevity, including habitat loss and predation by larger animals. Despite these challenges, the downy woodpecker remains a resilient species with unique adaptations such as its chisel-like bill and zygodactyl feet that allow it to climb trees with ease. By preserving their natural habitats and protecting them from human interference, we can ensure that future generations will continue to enjoy the beauty of this fascinating bird.

What Is The Average Clutch Size For Downy Woodpeckers?

Let’s talk about the average clutch size for downy woodpeckers. Take, for example, a pair of downy woodpeckers living in a dense forest in North America. These birds are known to lay anywhere between 4-6 eggs per clutch, with an incubation period lasting around two weeks. As a wildlife conservationist and biologist, it is essential to study these breeding patterns as they provide valuable insights into the reproductive success of bird populations. By understanding factors that influence clutch size such as habitat availability and food resources, we can make informed decisions on how best to protect these fascinating creatures and their habitats.

How Do Downy Woodpeckers Communicate With Each Other?

Downy woodpeckers communicate with each other using a variety of vocalizations and physical movements. They have distinctive calls, such as the "pik" or "tchick" sound that they use to establish territories and attract mates. Additionally, downy woodpeckers engage in drumming behavior, where they rapidly tap their bills on tree trunks or branches to signal their presence to potential partners or rivals. These communication methods are essential for maintaining social bonds within the species and ensuring successful reproduction. As wildlife conservationists and biologists, it is important to further study these behaviors and how they may be impacted by environmental factors in order to better protect this iconic North American bird species.

What Is The Downy Woodpecker’s Role In Its Ecosystem?

The downy woodpecker, a tiny yet charismatic bird with its signature black and white feathers, plays an important role in its ecosystem. But have you ever wondered what that role is? Well, brace yourself for some fascinating insights! Known to be insectivorous, the downy woodpecker feeds on beetles, ants, caterpillars and other insects found in trees. However, their diet doesn’t just consist of insects; they also feed on fruits and seeds which makes them valuable seed dispersers. With their unique ability to cling onto tree trunks while probing for food or creating holes for nesting purposes, these woodpeckers are known as keystone species since they create habitats not only for themselves but also for a multitude of other animals such as small mammals and birds like chickadees who make use of abandoned cavities. In short, the downy woodpecker’s presence is vital for maintaining biodiversity within the ecosystem it inhabits.

Can Downy Woodpeckers Live In Urban Areas?

While the downy woodpecker is primarily associated with wooded habitats, it has been observed living in urban areas as well. These adaptable birds can thrive in environments that provide them with sufficient food sources and suitable nesting sites. In fact, having downy woodpeckers in urban areas can have a positive impact on ecosystems by controlling insect populations and contributing to seed dispersal. However, it’s important for us to be mindful of our impacts on their habitat and take measures to preserve natural spaces where they can continue to flourish.


In conclusion, the downy woodpecker is not currently considered endangered. With a lifespan of up to 12 years in the wild and an average clutch size of 4-5 eggs, these birds are able to maintain stable populations across their range. Downy woodpeckers communicate through drumming patterns and vocalizations, allowing them to establish territories and attract mates.

As important members of their ecosystems, downy woodpeckers play a vital role in controlling insect populations and creating nest cavities for other species. They can even adapt to urban environments, making use of backyard bird feeders and parks as habitats.

Remember the adage "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." By preserving natural areas and providing suitable habitats, we can ensure that downy woodpecker populations continue to thrive for generations to come. As conservationists and biologists, it is our responsibility to protect all species from being pushed towards endangerment or extinction.

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